Second Punic War
Forged By Lightning: A Novel of Hannibal and Scipio

Forged By Lightning


A Novel of Hannibal and Scipio

Ancient Warfare Angela Render
Historical Fiction
War between Rome and Carthage
Carthaginian War
War with Rome
Second War with Carthage
Angela Render
ancient warfare
world's greatest general
2nd war with Carthage
Angela Render
2nd war with Carthage
historical fiction
Ancient Iberia and Spain
Hannibal
Scipio
Scipio
Hannibal attacks rome
Second Punic War
Republican Rome
Republican Rome
historic fiction
Second Punic War
Polytheisim
Carthaginian Gods
Roman Gods
Greek Gods
Forged By Lightning: A Novel of Hannibal and Scipio
Roman Republic

The God/Goddess Pales



Pales is a mysterious deity or deities. The Romans themselves weren't even sure as to His/Her exact sex and He/She was treated androgynous. He/She is the patron of sheppards (as pastoria Pales) and as a scholiast (as Pales Matuta).

Pales was honored on April 21 at the agricultural festival, Parilia, when He/She was invoked to purify and protect the flocks. For the Parilia, the sheep-fold had to be cleaned with water and swept pre-dawn on this day. It was decorated with leafy branches and a wreath placed over the entrance. The sheep were fumigated with sulphur and then an olive and pine wood fire was lit and laurel branches set on it. The sheppard offered millet cakes, food and milk and then prayed to Pales for forgiveness (in case he had unwittingly allowed his flock to graze on holy ground of had cut sacred wood or soiled holy water) and protection (from disease and from wolves). Facing east, the sheppard offered this prayer four times and then washed his hand in dew. Then the sheppard would drink a combination of milk and heated wine from a bowl and then leap through the bonfire. Then he would have his flock leap the fire as well. This ritual was preformed both privately and publicly. The rest of the day was conducted in pleasant feasting and drinking and people throughout the city would jump over burning bales of hay.

He/She is also known by the following names:
Pastoria Pales, Pales Matuta

Pales's sacred rites were performed in Rome on the following days:
April 21 - Parilia
July 7 - His/Her temple on the Palatine was dedicated in 267BCE
Hannibal Barca
Hamilcar Barca
Angela Render
Barca clan of Carthage